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|Example of Acute Exposure data from MEDITEXT.|
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Example Content from MEDITEXT for Nicotine:
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ACUTE EXPOSURE INFORMATION
- SOURCES: Found primarily in tobacco-containing products such as cigarettes, cigars, pipe tobacco, and chewing tobacco and also in nicotine replacement products such as gum, nasal sprays, patches, and electronic cigarettes. Also, found in the tobacco plant (Nicotiana tabacum) and some other plant species; occupational exposures may result from the harvesting or processing of tobacco plants (SEE Plants-Nicotinic Management). Nicotine may also be found in some insecticides (used in the developing world).
- PHARMACOLOGY: Binds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors that are found throughout the body, most notably in the autonomic nervous system (preganglionic sympathetic synapses and pre- and postganglionic parasympathetic synapses).
- TOXICOLOGY: Toxic effects are dose-related and result from overstimulation of nicotinic receptors, often causing inhibition of receptor action following initial stimulatory effects.
- EPIDEMIOLOGY: Very common exposure that can rarely result in significant morbidity and death, especially in children. May be an occupational exposure, commonly known as green tobacco sickness, from working with tobacco plants .
- WITH THERAPEUTIC USE
- ADVERSE EFFECTS: NICOTINE REPLACEMENT PRODUCTS: Symptoms may include local irritation from the gum, spray, or transdermal patch or systemic signs (eg, nausea and vomiting, sleep disturbances, headache, and chest pain) of nicotine toxicity. Absorption may occur after ingestion, inhalation, dermal, or rectal exposure.
- WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
- MILD TO MODERATE TOXICITY: GI upset, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, headache, tremor, diaphoresis, tachycardia, pallor, and hypertension are common events.
- SEVERE TOXICITY: Seizures, confusion, weakness, bradycardia, hypotension, and respiratory muscle paralysis can develop.
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