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|Example of Acute Exposure data from MEDITEXT.|
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Example Content from MEDITEXT for Naphthalene:
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ACUTE EXPOSURE INFORMATION
- USES: Naphthalene is found in mothballs and coal tar. It is also used as a component of petroleum and in the manufacturing of dyes, resins, fuels, and solvents.
- TOXICOLOGY: Naphthalene is metabolized in the liver to alpha-naphthol, which causes oxidant stress. Oxidant stress causes hemoglobin iron to go from ferrous (2+) to ferric (3+) state. This results in methemoglobinemia. Oxidant stress can also cause heme groups and globin groups to dissociate, precipitating in the erythrocytes thus forming Heinz bodies and producing hemolysis.
- EPIDEMIOLOGY: Adult and pediatric exposures are uncommon and deaths or severe toxicity due to exposure are extraordinarily rare.
- WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
- TOXICITY: LOCAL EFFECTS: Naphthalene exposure may cause irritation to the eyes, skin, and mucous membranes. Eye contact with the solid material may result in conjunctivitis, superficial injury to the cornea, and diminished visual acuity. Skin exposure may cause hypersensitivity dermatitis.
- SYSTEMIC EFFECTS: MILD TO MODERATE TOXICITY: Mild toxicity causes nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and headache. Restlessness may also develop.
- SEVERE TOXICITY: Severe toxicity may cause lethargy, hemolysis, hemolytic anemia, methemoglobinemia, hyperkalemia, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, dysuria, hematuria. Hemoglobinuria can also develop. In the most severe cases, seizures, coma, metabolic acidosis, renal failure, and acute lung injury may occur.
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