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|Example of Acute Exposure data from MEDITEXT.|
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ACUTE EXPOSURE INFORMATION
- USES: Pyrethrins are naturally occurring compounds produced by chrysanthemums. Pyrethrins are used as insecticides to treat parasitic infections such as scabies and lice. Pyrethroids are synthetic chemicals that are structurally similar to pyrethrins. Pyrethrin-pyrethroid combination insecticides are commonly mixed with petroleum distillates (kerosene, acetone, alcohol, ethylene dichloride) for use as household sprays or dusts. They usually contain synergists (piperonyl butoxide) and some are marketed in cans pressurized by propellants. Please refer to "PYRETHROIDS" management for more information.
- TOXICOLOGY: Pyrethrins bind voltage-gated sodium channels preferentially in the open state allowing sodium influx, prolonged axonal firing, with repetitive stimuli and eventual muscle paralysis. Piperonyl butoxide and other compounds are often added to pyrethrin insecticides as synergists and may contribute to toxicity.
- EPIDEMIOLOGY: Exposures to pyrethrins are common, but significant toxicity is very rare.
- WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
- MILD TO MODERATE TOXICITY: Dermal exposure can cause mild erythematous dermatitis with vesicles, papules in moist areas, and intense pruritus; a bulbous dermatitis may also occur. Pyrethrins can cause allergic dermatitis. Ocular exposure can cause irritation. Inhalation exposure can cause congestion, rhinorrhea and other upper respiratory symptoms, headaches, paresthesia, and dizziness. Ingestion commonly cause nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.
- SEVERE TOXICITY: Severe asthma exacerbations and anaphylaxis have been reported, and can be fatal. Seizures are a rare manifestation of severe poisoning. Severe corneal injury can occur from ocular exposure.
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