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|Example of Acute Exposure data from MEDITEXT.|
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ACUTE EXPOSURE INFORMATION
- Methyl vinyl ketone is a colorless to light yellow, flammable liquid with a pungent, powerfully irritating odor which is used as an alkylating agent, a beginning compound in plastics synthesis (vinyl resins), a component of ionomer resins, and a chemical intermediate in the synthesis of vitamin A and steroids.
- Methyl vinyl ketone can be readily absorbed through the skin, and is severely irritating to the skin (sometimes with blistering), eyes, and mucous membranes. The vapors are heavier than air, and the liquid is both lighter than water and soluble in water. It may also be absorbed following ingestion or inhalation.
- Hazardous polymerization may occur, especially if this material is heated in a container or on standing. Up to 1% hydroquinone may be added as a polymerization inhibitor. Methyl vinyl ketone is available in a grade of 98.5% purity.
- Ketones are hydrocarbons with the general structural formula of (R-CO-R) (where "R" represents various functional groups). Because of good solvent properties, low cost factors, and generally low toxicity, ketones are frequently used as chemical intermediates and solvents for lacquers, vinyl polymers, resins, cotton, dyes, and pigments.
- The primary toxicity of the ketones is as central nervous system depressants and mild irritants of the eyes, skin, and mucous membranes.
- Various ketones are absorbed by ingestion, inhalation, and dermal exposure. Absorption through the skin of toxic amounts of ketones is common and rapid.
- Animals exposed to HIGH concentrations of most of the ketones sustained damage to lungs (emphysema), liver, kidneys, and brain (edema), but such has not been found in long term occupational epidemiologic studies in humans.
- Exposure to ketone solvents should be generally be managed as HYDROCARBON exposures (Refer to the HYDROCARBONS MEDITEXT Medical Management for more information).
- The LOWER the VISCOSITY of the involved solvent, the more readily it can penetrate deeply into the pulmonary tree after aspiration; also the greater the likelihood of serious pneumonitis.
- The minimal toxic or lethal dose of various ketones are not well established in the literature. Estimation of the severity of intoxication should be based primarily on clinical findings.
- For most ketone compounds, the exposures required for development of such effects as peripheral neuropathies and hepatotoxicity are well above those generally found in the workplace.
- Methyl vinyl ketone releases irritating acrid smoke and fumes when heated to decomposition.
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