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|Example of Acute Exposure data from MEDITEXT.|
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Example Content from MEDITEXT for 25322-68-3:
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ACUTE EXPOSURE INFORMATION
- USES: Polyethylene glycol (PEG) has pharmaceutical and industrial uses. Pharmaceutical uses include cleansing the colon prior to gastrointestinal examination or surgery and for the treatment of constipation. Industrial uses include lubrication for textile fibers, rubber molds, and metal-forming operations, as well as in water paints, paper coatings, and polishes, and in the ceramics industry. Low molecular weights (600 dalton or less) are used as reactive intermediates in the manufacture of fatty acid surfactants as solvents in gas processing and as diluents in pharmaceuticals (lorazepam contains 18% PEG 400). Intermediate weight (1000 to 2000 dalton) are used in pharmaceutical ointments and toothpaste formulations and as bases for cosmetic creams and lotions. Higher-molecular weight polyethylene glycols (3500 to 20,000) find use as binders, plasticizers, stiffening agents, molding compounds, and paper adhesives. Carbowax 1500 is a solid consisting of equal portions of PEG 1540 and PEG 300.
- PHARMACOLOGY: PEG 3500 is an osmotic agent, which causes water to be retained in the stool, enhancing bowel movement through the colon.
- EPIDEMIOLOGY: Exposure is uncommon and toxicity is extremely rare.
- WITH THERAPEUTIC USE
- ADVERSE EFFECTS: COMMON: Nausea, vomiting, abdominal fullness, delayed gastric emptying, diarrhea, and taste disorders may develop after ingestion. Contact dermatitis and immediate urticarial reactions may develop after dermal exposures.
- SEVERE: Metabolic acidosis, increased serum osmolality, acute renal failure, increased total serum calcium with normal or decreased ionized calcium, and ventricular dysrhythmias (PVCs, ventricular tachycardia) may develop. Aspiration causes severe pulmonary edema that is usually reversible. Acute pancreatitis and angioedema have been reported rarely.
- WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
- TOXICOLOGY: High and intermediate molecular weight PEG is generally considered nontoxic, as it is not absorbed following ingestion. Acute toxicity decreases with increasing molecular weight. Massive ingestion, prolonged IV infusion, and prolonged application of low weight PEG products have been associated with metabolic acidosis and renal injury. Hypercalcemia occurs and might be related to specific PEG diacid metabolites (3-oxapentane-1,5-dicarboxylic acid and 3,6-dioxaoctane-1,8-dicarboxylic acid), which are avid calcium binders. With binding of ionized calcium, parathyroid hormone is stimulated and total serum calcium increases. Toxicity is unlikely following ingestion of small amounts or from contact with intact skin. Immediate and delayed allergic contact dermatitis has been observed.
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