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|Example of Acute Exposure data from MEDITEXT.|
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ACUTE EXPOSURE INFORMATION
- WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
- ROUTES OF EXPOSURE - Copper compounds may be toxic by inhalation, ingestion, injection, and skin or eye exposure. Copper salts are particularly irritating.
- INHALATION - Exposure to fumes or dust may cause irritation of the nose and upper respiratory tract, as well as sneezing and coughing. Perforation of the nasal septum can also occur. 'Metal fume fever,' with respiratory and flu-like symptoms such as chills and muscle aches, may result from exposure to fumes or fine dust. The incidence of copper-induced metal fume fever is low due to the high temperatures required to volatilize copper.
- INGESTION - Acute ingestion of copper salts can cause irritation, severe nausea and vomiting, salivation, abdominal pain, epigastric burning, hemolysis, gastrointestinal bleeding with hemorrhagic gastritis, hematemesis and melena, anemia, hypotension, jaundice, seizures, coma, shock and death. Hepatic and renal failure may develop several days after acute ingestion. Methemoglobinemia may rarely occur. Copper may produce a metallic or sweet taste.
- INJECTION - Subcutaneous injection of copper glycinate resulted in nausea and vomiting, acute renal failure, hemolytic anemia, acute hepatic failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and dermal necrosis at the injection site.
- DERMAL - Skin exposure may cause irritation, itching, eczema, allergic contact dermatitis, hypersensitivity, and a greenish discoloration of the hair, teeth and skin.
- EYE - Exposure of the eyes to copper fumes or dust can cause irritation, conjunctivitis, palpebral edema, ulceration and corneal turbidity. Eye irritation, uveitis, abscess and loss of the eye may also occur from the mechanical action of lodged copper particles. Penetration of the eye by fine fragments can result in severe ocular damage. Corneal discoloration (Kayser-Fleischer ring) is a hallmark of Wilson disease.
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